- Sightseeing Places - Shivapuri
Shivapuri is the
second highest peak among the hills surrounding
the Kathmandu Valley. It is 2732m at its peak
with numerous sharp ridges radiating to all sides.
Situated towards the north of the Kathmandu Valley,
due to its strategic location and convenience,
Shivapuri was proclaimed as a watershed area supplying
more than a million liters of natural spring water
to the city. After Shivapuri experienced several
problems concerning soil erosion as a result of
deforestation, over- grazing, cultivation on steep
slopes etc.; reducing the quality and quantity
of the water supplied, His Majesty's Govt. of
Nepal initiated a program to protect Shivapuri
and its adjoining areas as a watershed and wildlife
reserve in 1975. In 1976, the Shivapuri Development
Board was established to ensure a multi disciplinary
supervision and guidance of the project activities.
A boundary wall
of 111 km was constructed around the reserve and
settlements within the area evacuated, establishing
the Royal Nepal Army here to safeguard the reserve.
A road 95 km in length and foot trails 82 km was
built and improved around the reserve. 1193 ha
inside and 786 ha outside the reserve had been
identified and designated as Shivapuri Watershed
and Wildlife Reserve (SWWR) and its buffer zones.
As recently as, in mid 2002 Shivapuri Watershed
and Wildlife Reserve was officially given a National
lies in the transition zone between subtropical
and temperate climate, the vegetation consists
of a variety of natural forest types, depending
on altitude and aspects. Most of the areas below
1800m are covered with Schima castanopsis forest
in which pines (Pinus roxburghii) appear on the
southern dry ridges, with Utis (Alnus nepalensis)
along the streams. A forest of oak species such
as Quercus semicarpifolia and Quercus lamelosa
mixed with rhododendron and a variety of orchids
flourish on the northern slopes. A variety of
medicinal herbs is found at higher altitudes.
A hundred and twenty nine species of mushrooms
have been so far identified and catalogued from
the Shivapuri National Park.
Among the wild animals,
Sloth Bear (Melursus ursinus), Leopard (Panthera
pardus), Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak), Pallas's
Cat (Felis manul), Large Indian Civet (Viverra
zibetha), Himalayan Yellow Throated Marten (Martes
flavigula), Indian Pangolin (Manis crassicaudata),
Wild Boar (Sus scrofa), Goral (Nemorhaedus goral),
Indian Porcupine (Hystris indica), and Common
Langur (Presbytis entellus) etc. can be spotted
around the park.
butterflies and lizards can be seen in around
the 97.36 sq. km of SWWR. 177 species of birds
of which 9 are enlisted as endangered, 19 species
of mammals and 150 species of butterflies some
endemic and rare are found in the Shivapuri area,
out of the total of 800 species of birds, 130
species of mammals and 600 species of butterflies
found in Nepal, thus making Shivapuri a paradise
for flora and fauna and one of the few National
Parks in the capital around the globe.